• <optgroup id="izeuk"><button id="izeuk"></button></optgroup>
    <rp id="izeuk"><menu id="izeuk"></menu></rp>

        Safe Ups and Downs for Process Units-化工裝置的安全開停車

        轉載。

        Tests should be made in accordance with a procedure prepared prior to the startup. It must be determined that all testing has been satisfactorily completed. Pumps and piping should be inspected during and following these tests. 

        在開車之前,應按已經編制好的程序進行試驗。必須確定是否所有試驗均已經完成。在試驗過程中和試驗后,都應對泵和管道進行檢查。

        Scaffolding materials, tools and surplus materials should be removed from the operating area. 

        腳手架材料、工具和剩余材料,都應撤出裝置運行區。

        Furnace fireboxes should be inspected and all debris removed from them.

        Failure to remove shutdown blinds and failure to install running blinds can cause serious upsets and damage. The startup procedure, giving the prescribed time for removal of shutdown blinds and the installation of running blinds, must be followed. A blind list should be included as a part of the startup procedure, and each removal or insertion of a blind should be noted and initialed by the operator in charge (Figure 17). If a blind is overlooked, much time and work may be wasted and hazardous conditions may be created, especially if the correction has to be made at a critical time in the startup. If blinds are reinstalled after having been removed and signed out, this must be noted on the blind list. No blind may be installed or removed without permission from the operators. 

        應對爐膛進行檢查,并將所有殘留物都清除出去。未拆除停車盲板及未安裝運行盲板都會造成嚴重故障和破壞。開車程序規定了拆除盲板和安裝運行盲板的規定時間,必須遵守規定的時間。應將盲板明細表作為開車程序的一部分包括進去,每次拆除和安裝盲板,都應由主管人員做記錄并簽字確認(見圖17)。如果忽略了一塊盲板,就可能要浪費很多時間和工作,并可能會造成危害,尤其是在開車的關鍵時刻,將會不得不采取補救措施。如果在已經拆除和簽字后重新安裝盲板,則必須記錄在盲板明細表上。未經操作人員許可,不得安裝和拆除盲板。

        圖片

        Figure 17: Records are important to make sure blinds are installed and removed. 

        17:做好記錄對于確認盲板的安裝與拆除是很重要的。

        The safety practices specified for removing and installing blinds in Section F of "Shutdown Procedures" should also be followed during startup. 
        在“停車程序”的F節中已經規定了開車過程中應遵守的,拆除和安裝盲板的安全作業規程。
        Operators frequently assume a valve is closed or open because of its appearance or "feel." Critical valves should be broken loose to verify the valve position and operability. It is extremely important that critical instruments and alarms and automatic shutdown devices be checked out prior to startup to be certain that they are reliable. 
        操作人員經常從外觀和憑“感覺”來判定閥門是關閉還是打開的。關鍵閥門應核實閥門位置及可操作性。極為重要的一點是,應在開車前對關鍵儀表、報警器和自動停車裝置實施檢查,以確認其是否可靠。